What is Cyperus Grass and Why is it Unique?
Cyperus grass is a species of Cyperus sedge frequently found as weeds in home lawns, gardens, and landscapes. As a perennial weed, cyperus grass spreads aggressively through rhizomes and seeds, causing damage and issues for homeowners. Extended exposure to these intrusive grasses can lead to clogged drains, sidewalk cracks, and degraded aesthetics. The ability of cyperus grass to thrive in a wide range of moist conditions allows it to emerge early in the spring and persist late in the fall.
Identifying Cyperus Grass: Key Characteristics to Look For
The key visual characteristics to identify cyperus grass include the following:
- Stems: The triangular culms are hollow, segmented, and range in color from off-white to light green.
- Leaves: The leaves are grass-like and narrow, emanating from the nodes of the culm segments.
- Flowers: Small brown spikelets form in umbrella-shaped clusters at the tips of the stems.
- Roots and Rhizomes: The majority of the plant mass is found below ground in the form of spreading rhizomes and tubers known as nutlets. These nutlets enable cyperus grass to rapidly colonize new areas.
The growth habit and general appearance of cyperus grass can resemble that of true grasses or sedges. However, key differences in the internal culm and floral structures distinguish cyperus from other grass-like plants. Identifying the stems, leaves, flowers and especially the underground reproductive structures is crucial for positive identification.
Understanding the Different Varieties of Cyperus Grass
There are three main varieties of Cyperus grass that differ in appearance. [Yellow nutsedge] (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yellow_nutsedge)
Yellow nutsedge is the most common type. The stems are yellowish-green and upright and the leaves have yellow margins. Purple nutsedge has narrow, purple-tinged stems that grow horizontally close to the ground. Flatsedge has flat, bright green stems and leaf blades that are flattened rather than round.
Varieties can be distinguished by their:
- Stems: shape, color and growth habit
- Leaves: width, color and texture
- Seeds or nutlets: size, shape and color
Yellow nutsedge produces nutlets that are elongated and triangular while purple nutsedge nutlets are ovoid to spherical. Flatsedge nutlets are flattened and discoid.
Cultivating and Caring for Cyperus Grass: Expert Tips and Techniques
The most effective ways to control Cyperus grass
Cyperus include both cultural and chemical methods.
An integrated approach using a combination of the following tips works best:
Physical removal by digging out roots and rhizomes. This is effective if done when the soil is moist and repeated consistently.
Applying pre-emergent herbicides in early spring before seeds germinate to prevent new growth.
Spraying post-emergent herbicides containing glyphosate to kill existing plants. This is most effective on young, actively growing plants.
Covering affected areas with landscape fabric to block sunlight. This may need to be left in place for 1-2 years to exhaust the roots.
Infrequent mowing alone is not effective since it stimulates horizontal growth of rhizomes and stems. Hand-removal of seeds before they drop also helps reduce the seedbank in the soil.
Follow-up treatments will likely be needed for 1-3 years to manage regrowth from nutlets and root fragments. Once the seedbank is depleted, recurrence is less likely.